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کولوسئوم

» نوع مطلب : تاریخ جهان ،

کولوسئوم : سالن آمفی تئاتر رومیان

ساخت کولوسئوم یا آمفی تئاتر Flavian توسط Vespasian امپراطول سالهای 69 تا 70

روم پایه گذاری شد، پس از آن پسرش Titus در سال 80 بعد از میلاد آنرا بنا کرد، که نهایتا

 توسط Domitian برادر Titus که در سال 81 بر وی غلبه کرد و بر جایگاه امپراطور روم

نشست، کامل شد و به پایان رسید. کولوسئوم به عنوان اولین آمفی تئاتر دائمی و ماندگار

 ساخته شده در روم، در زمین های باتلاقی ما بین تپه های Esquiline و Caelian واقع شده

بود. قدمت تاریخی و شکوه و جلال این عمارت از یک سو و کارامدی آن برای اجرای نمایش و

 امکان کنترل جمعیت ، از سوی دیگر، باعث شد این سالن یکی از بزرگترین بناهای معماری

 روم باستان به شمار رود.

این آمفی تئاتر، به شکل یک بیضی عظیم است که ردیف های صندلی به تعداد پنجاه هزار

تماشاچی، دور تا دور یک صحنه بیضی شکل مرکزی قرار گرفته است.

کف صحنه چوبی است و در زیر آن مجموعه ای از اتاقها و گذرگاهها برای عبور حیوانات وحشی و سایر

 تدارکات لازم جهت راه اندازی و اجرای نمایش قرار گرفته است . تعداد 80 دیوار به عنوان تکیه گاه

برای طاق های گنبدی شکل، گذرگاهها، پلکان و ردیف های صندلی، روی صحنه قرار گرفته است. لبه

بیرونی طاق های متوالی باعث اتصال طبقات مختلف و پلکان بین آنها به یکدیگر شده است. 

نمای داخلی Coliseum از بالا

سه ردیف طاق های گنبدی شکل رو در روی ستون ها و سر ستون ها قرار گرفته اند، در ستون های

طبقه اول سبک معماری دوریک (Doric)، در طبقه دوم سبک ایونیک (Ionic)، و در طبقه سوم سبک

قرنتی (Corinthian) که نزدیک به سبک کلاسیک یونان بود، به کار رفته است.

در بالای این سه طبقه اصلی، طبقه زیرشیروانی شامل ستون های مستطیل شکل سبک قرنتی قرار دارد،

فضای بین ستون ها با 40 عدد پنجره کوچک مستطیل شکل پر شده است. در قسمت بالا، دیوارکوب ها و

بندگاههایی وجود دارد که تیرک هایی را که سایه بان ها به آنها آویزان است، نگه داشته اند.

در ساخت عمارت با دقت بسیاری از انواع ترکیبات ساختمانی استفاده شده، برای فونداسیون از بتون و

برای ستون ها و طاق ها از سنگ آهک ( تراورتن) استفاده شده، در ستون های به کار رفته برای دیوار

 دو طبقه زیرین، از نوعی سنگ متخلخل به نام توفا (Tufa) استفاده شده است. برای طبقات فوقانی و

اکثر طاق ها از آجر بتونی استفاده شده است.

جزئیات :
کولوسئوم طوری طراحی شده که در آن پنجاه هزار تماشاگر جا بگیرد. در حدود 80 ورودی دارد که

جمعیت می توانسته خیلی سریع و به راحتی وارد آن محل شده و از آنجا خارج شود.

نقشه آن یک بیضی پهناور است به اقطار 188 در 156 متر و زیربنای عمارت در حدود 6 جریب است.

طاق ها روی 80 دیوار محوری نگهدارنده برای محافظت از ردیف های صندلی، گذرگاهها و پلکان، قرار

گرفته اند.

ارتفاع نمای بیرونی شامل سه ردیف طاق به انضمام طبقه زیرشیروانی حدود 48.5 متر می باشد که

معادل یک ساختمان 12 تا 15 طبقه است.

منبع  : کتاب آشنایی با معماری جهان


نوشته شده در : سه شنبه 25 دی 1386  توسط : R.k.    نظرات() .

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