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sadreh - فضا در معماری

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فضا در معماری

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یکی از پرسشهای تئوری معماری غرب ، این است که مفهوم فضا از چه زمانی یکی از دل مشغولیهای معماری شده است . قبل از اواخر قرن 19 در هیچ یک از متون ، بحث مشخصی راجع به فضا نداریم . اما هدف معماری همیشه یافتن فضایی منظم است که وقایعی از پیش تعیین نشده را بپروراند . ” برورنو زوی “ ، معماری را هنر ساختن فضا معرفی می کند. ” گیدئون “ از فضا به عنوان بحث اصلی معماری سخن می گوید . لاسدن می گوید :” فضا بغرنج ترین جنبه معماری و لکن عصاره آن است و سرمنزلی است که معماری باید به سوی آن حرکت کند “ . مهم ترین ویژگی معماری مدرن پس از به ارمغان آوردن آهن و شیشه و تحولات سخت افزاری – به یمن شیوه های تازه بصری که امپرسیونیست ها و کوبیست ها منادی آن بودند – کشف جدید از مفهوم فضاست و فضا به عنوان کیفیتی مثبت در کنار مثلث ویتریوویوس قوام تازه ای را از معماری مدرن پی ریخت.

فضا زمینه ای سه بعدی است که اشیاء در آن قرار می گیرند و دارای جهت و موقعیت نسبی می باشد . فضا ماده جوهری معماری است و منبعی لایتناهی که بدون بعد سوم معنا و حضور معمارانه ندارد . فضا ماهیتا بی شکل است ، شکل بصری و کیفیت نوری و ابعاد آن بستگی کامل به حدودش دارد که توسط عناصر تشکیل دهنده فرم تعریف می شود . وقتی فضا توسط این عناصر شروع به محصور شدن و سازماندهی شدن می کند ، معماری ایجاد می شود و شخصیت فضا تابع نظم حاکم بین این عناصر است . چارلز مور می گوید : ” وقتی از یک کف و یک سقف و چهار دیوار اتاق ساخته می شود، در کنار شش عنصر ، عنصر هفتمی به نام ” فضا “ وجود دارد ،که این عنصر اثری بیش از عناصر فیزیکی ای دارد که فضا توسط آنان ساخته شده است “ . فضا بوسیله اشخاص مختلف به گونه های مختلف احساس می شود ، حتی در مورد ناظر ثابت هم بنابر تاثیر عوامل اجتماعی – روانی در تغییر می باشد و اینجاست که می توان گفت مسئولیت و وظیفه ای که معماری فارغ از عملکرد دارد این است که فضا را به سمت هنر سوق دهد . معماری خود نوعی زبان است که از طریق سازماندهی فضا بیان می شود . زبان معماری شباهت زیادی به موسیقی دارد . زیرا فهم آن کمتر به مکان و زبان و بیشتر به فضا وابسته است . در مجموع باید گفت فضا به عنوان ظرف یا مکانی که فعالیتهای بشری در آن صورت می گیرد رابطه ای ناگسستنی با زندگی دارد و لحظه ای از زندگی روزمره آدمیان جدا نبوده است .

 

 

برگرفته ازمجلات معماری و شهرسازی ، کتاب زیباشناسی در معماری


نوشته شده در : سه شنبه 24 دی 1387  توسط : R.k.    نظرات() .

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